On January 15, 2011, the Federal Law "On the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation", signed on December 28, 2010, came into force. This was the reason to add another holiday date to the Russian calendar - the Day of the formation of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation.
As reported in the explanatory note to the bill, the functioning of the Investigative Committee outside the system of the prosecutor's office will create the necessary conditions for more efficient work of both the prosecutor's office and the investigative bodies. The idea was not new: for the first time, Peter I decided to separate the investigative department from other state structures. The emperor carried out a judicial reform, dividing the criminal process into two stages: preliminary investigation and trial.
In 1713, the first specialized investigative bodies appeared in Russia. They were the major investigative offices, which reported directly to Peter I and examined cases of the most dangerous acts. These included offenses that encroached on the foundations of statehood: bribery, embezzlement, official forgery, fraud. The investigating authorities, dependent only on the emperor, could remain impartial and objective even in relation to high-ranking officials. So, at the beginning of the 18th century, 11 out of 23 Russian senators attracted the attention of the investigating offices.