Prevention of one of the most serious viral diseases that affects the human nervous system and causes paralysis, paresis and atrophy of muscle tissue, leading to death or disability, is celebrated annually on October 24 World Polio Day.
The disease, which can develop at any age, but affects mainly children under the age of 5, has long been a real nightmare for parents in many countries of the world. A vaccine against it appeared in the 1950s. It was developed by American virologists and epidemiologists Hilary Koprovsky, Jonas Edward Salk, Albert Sabin in close cooperation with Soviet virologists and epidemiologists M.P. Chumakov and A.A. Smorodintsev.
First, Koprowski creates a vaccine based on a weakened (attenuated) polio virus. This happened in 1950. Further, in the mid-1950s (several years after Koprowski's discovery), J.E. Salk creates an inactivated vaccine. Following him, A. Sabin managed to obtain weakened forms of the polio virus, on the basis of which he in the USA, and Chumakov and Smorodintsev in the USSR created their own oral vaccines.